Phylum Sipuncula In: Atkinson LJ and Sink KJ (eds). Field Guide to the Ofshore Marine Invertebrates of South Africa,. Malachite Marketing and Media, Pretoria. Sipuncula is a clade of unsegmented, coelomate marine worms. . Sipuncula, however, with sipunculans as an annelid ingroup, other. Phylum Sipuncula. Class Phascolosomatidea. Order Aspidosiphoniformes. Family Aspidosiphonidae. Aspidosiphon Diesing, Aspidosiphon elegans.

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In Java, in the western Carolines, and in some parts of China, sipunculans are eaten by the locals. Both asexual and sexual reproduction can be found in sipunculans, although asexual reproduction is uncommon. The intestine is characteristically U-shaped, with the ascending and descending branches coiled around each other in a double helix.

These gametes are then picked up by the metanephridia system and released into the aquatic environment, where fertilisation takes place. Algal mats, large sponges, root mats of mangroves or sea grass, and byssal threads of bivalves also serve as habitats for some species.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. Traditionally considered a phylumthey might be a subgroup of phylum Annelida based on recent molecular work. The tentacles and the contractile vessel fluid reservoir for tentacle extension contain a second coelomic compartment. Scottish Journal of Geology. sipuuncula

In the Phascolosomatidea, the tentacles are arranged in an arc around the nuchal organ, also located at the tip of the introvert. Although some species hatch directly into the adult form, many have a trochophore larva, which metamorphoses into the adult after anything from a day to a month, depending on species. This style of food preparation is locally called kilawin or kinilawand is also filuum for fish, conch, and vegetables.

The anus lies dorsally, usually at the anterior end of the trunk, except in some species where it is shifted anteriorly onto the introvert.


Platyhelminthes flatworms Gastrotricha hairybacks. Sipunculans reproduce asexually via transverse fission followed by regeneration sipuncual vital body components. Arthropoda arthropods Tardigrada waterbears. Fishermen in various parts of the world use sipunculan worms, mostly the larger sand-dwelling species, as bait. No sexual dimorphism is known in Sipuncula.

Sipuncula – Wikipedia

Taken in CebuPhilippines. In Aspidosiphon sipucnula shield is a hardened, horny skpuncula in Lithacrosiphon it is a calcareous cone; in Cloeosiphon it is composed of separate plates.

The phylogenetic placement of this phylum in the past has proved troublesome. They are relatively common in shallow waters, either in burrows or in discarded shells as hermit crabs do. Sipuncula Peanut worms Number of families 6 Thumbnail description Unsegmented marine worm-like animals with a body divided into a trunk and retractable introvert Photo: It is a common meal for fisherfolk and is a sought-after but not so common appetizer in city restaurants.

Invertebrate Zoology, 7th edition. It can be protruded from the trunk by contracting the muscles of the trunk wall, thus forcing the fluid in the body cavity forwards.


Relatively little is known about the behavior of sipunculans. The paleozoic Hyolitha has a mix of attributes of sipunculans and mollusks, suggesting a close phylogenetic relationship with both. Asexual reproduction by budding has been reported in Aspidosiphon elegans. A sipunculid worm dish is also a delicacy in the islands of the Visayas region, Philippines. Cycliophora Symbion Annelida ringed worms. A sipunculan with introvert everted left and retracted.

Swimming has only been reported in Sipunculus and consists of non-directional thrashing of filim trunk. Kinorhyncha mud dragons Priapulida penis worms.

Orthonectida Dicyemida or Rhombozoa Monoblastozoa Sipuncuka. The ciliated urn cells may also be attached to the peritoneum and assist in waste filtering from the interstitial fluid. Best examined sipunculan species; model organism for anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and ecology. Larval development and metamorphosis in Sipuncula. The worms, especially in dried form, are considered a delicacy in Vietnam as well, where they are caught on the coasts of Minh Chao island, in Van Don District.


Most sipunculan species are dioecious. Number sippuncula families 6 Thumbnail description Unsegmented marine worm-like animals with a body divided into a trunk and retractable introvert Photo: Used as bait in some parts of the world.

A spindle muscle runs through the gut coil. American Zoologist, 16, — At the posterior end of the trunk, a hardened caudal shield is sometimes present in Aspidosiphon ; [6] this may help with anchoring the animal in its burrow or may be used in the boring process.

Phylum Sipuncula

Nematoda roundworms Nematomorpha horsehair worms. The sipunculan nervous system consists of a cerebral ganglion and a ventral nerve cord. Placozoa Trichoplax Cnidaria jellyfish and relatives. A large coelom represents the main body cavity.

Some sipunculan species inhabit semi-permanent burrows in coarse or silty sand, and some live in crevices under rocks. The phylum Sipuncula contains two classes, four orders, six families, 17 genera, and species. The nervous system consists of a nerve ring the cerebral ganglion around the oesophagus, which functions as a brain, and a single ventral nerve cord that runs the length of the body. The tentacles each spuncula a deep groove along which food is moved to the mouth by cilia.

List of bilaterial animal orders. These are proteinaceous, non-chitinous specializations filuk the epidermiseither arranged in rings or scattered. Fluid transport and gas exchange are instead accomplished by the coelomwhich contains the respiratory pigment haemerythrinand the tentacular system. The ratio between introvert and trunk length varies among species.