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The present invention is concerned with hydraulic fluids based on oily triglycerides of fatty acids. The hydraulic fluids commonly used are petroleum-based, chemically saturated or unsaturated, straight-chained, branched or ring-type hydrocarbons. The petroleum-based hydraulic fluids involve, however, a number of environmental and health risks. Hydrocarbons may constitute a cancer risk when in prolonged contact with the skin, as well as a risk of damage to the lungs when inhaled with the air.
Moreover, oil allowed to escape into the environment causes spoiling of the soil and the ground water, even in small quantities. They are also toxic to the aquatic life in rivers, lakes, etc. In addition to the above, hydrocarbon oils as such have in fact a rather limited applicability for hydraulic purposes, wherefor the hydraulic fluids based on such oils contain a variety of additives in considerable amounts.
Petroleum is also a non-renewable, and consequently limited, natural resource. Thus there is an obvious need for fluids for hydraulic purposes which are based on renewable natural resources, and which are, at the same time, environmentally acceptable.
One such a natural base component for hydraulic fluids is the oily triglycerides, as suggested in the patent specification GB 2 The triglycerides described in the said specification GB 2 are glycerol esters of fatty acids, and the chemical structure of the said esters can be defined by means of the following formula:. The triglyceride may also, according to the teaching of the specification GB 2contain a small quantity of an alkatrienylic acid residue, but a larger quantity is detrimental, because it promotes oxidation of the triglyceride oil.
Certain triglyceride oils, so-called drying oils, contain considerable quantities of alkatrienyl and alkadienyl groups, and they form solid films, under the effect of the oxygen in the air. Such oils, the iodine number of which is usually higher than and which are used i.
As is stated in the specification GB 2any other oily triglyceride with an iodine number of at least 50 and no more than is suitable for the purpose. Particularly suitable are the triglycerides of the oleic acid-linoleic acid type which contain no more than 20 per cent by weight of esterified saturated fatty acids calculated on the quantity of irgapube fatty acids.
The most preferred among these triglycerides of vegetable origin, under normal temperatures of use, are described to be those that contain esterified oleic acid in a quantity in excess of 50 per cent by weight of the total quantity of fatty irgzlube Table 1.
Olive Peanut Maize Rape oil oil oil oil Linoleic acid C irgaoube It is characteristic of all of these oily triglycerides that their viscosities change on change in temperature to irgalbe lesser extent than the viscosities of hydrocarbon basic oils.
The viscosity-to-temperature ratio characteristic of each oil can be characterized by means of the empiric viscosity index VIthe numerical value of which is the higher the less the viscosity of the oil concerned changes with a change in temperature. The viscosity indexes of triglycerides are clearly irhalube than those of hydrocarbon oils with no additives, so that triglycerides are to their nature so-called multigrade oils.
This is of considerable importance under conditions in which the operating temperature may vary within rather wide limits. The viscosities and viscosity irbalube of certain triglycerides are given in Table 2. Hydrocarbon-based basic oils 0 – The flash points of hydrocarbon basic oils are, as a rule, clearly lower.
The triglyceride oils differ from the non-polar hydrocarbons completely in the respect that they are of a polar nature. This accounts for the irgaluve ability of triglycerides to be adsorbed on metal faces as very thin adhering films. A study of the operation of glide faces placed in close 34 to each other, and considering pressure and temperature to be the fundamental factors affecting lubrication, shows that the film-formation properties of triglycerides are particularly advantageous in hydraulic systems.
In addition, water cannot force a triglyceride oil film off a irgalhbe face as easily as a hydrocarbon film. Rape seed oil has been considered as an example of the monomeric triglyceride oils used in the hydraulic fluids in accordance with the specification GB 2which rape seed oil is also obtained from the subspecies Brassica campestris and which oil, in its present-day commercial form, contains little or no erucic acid, docosenoic acid.
However, it is to be kept in mind that applicable triglyceride oils differ from rape seed oil only in respect of the composition of the fatty acids esterified irgaluge glycerol, which difference comes out as different pour points and viscosities of the oils.
Even oils obtained from different sub-species of rape and from their related sub-species display differences in pour points and viscosities, owing to differences in the compositions of fatty acids, as appears from Table 3.
Of the rape seed oils mentioned in the table, the first one eruca has been obtained from a sub-species that has a high content of erucic acid C The characterizing data of rape seed oil are compared in Table irggalube with certain commercial basic mineral oils.
The above data indicate that the said triglycerides have many properties which are of advantage especially in hydraulic fluids.
As mentioned already before, the viscosity index VI of triglycerides, as compared with mineral oil products, is superior. The viscosity index irgaluhe the triclyceride oils is apparently also more stable against mechanical and heat stresses existing in the hydraulic systems than the viscosity index of the hydraulic fluids based on formulated mineral oils and containing polymeric viscosity index improves.
In addition it can be expected that the ability of the polar triglyceride molecule to adhere onto metallic surfaces improves the lubricating properties of these triglycerides. The only property of the natural triglycerides which has irga,ube to impede their intended use for 439 purposes is their tendency lrgalube be easily oxidized. The oxidation has many negative effects to the properties of a natural triglyceride based hydraulic fluid, wherefore the fluid has to be replaced by fresh fluid more frequently than fluids based on hydrocarbon oils.
For instance the viscosity of the natural triglyceride hydraulic fluid is increased due to the oxidation. The oxidation irgaljbe also foaming of the fluid, the filtration properties of the fluid are decreased, and the higher water solubility causes problems irgaoube the hydraulic system. The oxidation products are also irgaube. In order to avoid these problems caused by oxidation the working temperature of the hydraulic system is to be kept lower than when hydrocarbon based oils are used.
It has, however, been noted that the tendency of the said natural triglycerides to be oxidized can be decreased essentially to the same level as that of the common hydrocarbon based hydraulic oils, by using additives in very moderate amounts, which additives have been selected according to the invention.
This fact is evident from the results of the following example 1. In this example the stability of the hydraulic fluids against oxidative degradation was tested.
The fluids were tested with an apparatus according to the test method ASTM D by introducing into a pressure vessel ml of the fluid to be tested. The vessel was closed and placed into boiling water. During the test the oxygen pressure in the vessel was determined. Refined rape seed oil: The additives used were: Irgalubeamino phosphate derivative, Ciba-Geigy; Irganox Lmixture of tertiary-butyl phenol derivatives, Ciba-Geigy; Reomet 39, triazole derivative, Ciba-Geigy; Anqlamol 75, zinc dialkyldithio-phosphate, Lubrizol; ENkortacid T derivative, Akzo Chemie; Hitecmixture of tertiary-butyl phenol derivatives.
Vanderbilt; Additin 10, 2,6-di-tertiary-butylmathylphenol, Rhein-Chemie. As can bee seen from the results of Table 5, the compositions 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 are clearly comparable with the common mineral-oil based hydraulic oils 15 and 16 used for comparison in this example. The compositions 2 and 9 contain the anti-oxidant additives selected according to the invention, but the amounts used have not been sufficient.
From the data in Table 5 it can be derived that a triglyceride complying irgaluve the definitions presented at the beginning of this description and containing a certain amount of carefully selected anti-oxidant additives can form irgalubr base for a fluid composition usable for hydraulic purposes. According to the invention the anti-oxidant fraction in the irgalubw forms 2.
Examples of compounds which belong to the abovemention- ed groups can be named as follows:. N,N’-disalicylidene-1,2-propenylenediamine; N,N’-bis beta-3,5-ditertbutylhydroxyphenylpropiono hydrazide. One indication of the resistance towards oxidation of oils is also their ability to keep the lubrication properties in higher temperatures.
This ability was tested in the following example 2. In this tester the friction between a moving and a stationary element is determined at increasing temperatures. As the moving element is used a steel ball having a diameter of 6 mm, whereas the stationary element consists of a steel plate. The lubricant to be tested is spread on the plate, and it is exposed to the ambient air oxygen during the tests. In the tests conducted the ball was pressed towards the plate by a force of 40 N during its reciprocating movement having an amplitude of 5 mm and a frequency of 20 Hz.
The temperature in which the friction began to increase sharply was registered, and it was used as an indication of the failure of the lubricative film between the ball and the plate. The film failure temperature is a measure of the oxidation resistance of the oil. The test 3, however, shows that the percentage of the antioxidant has not been high enough. The result is clearly better if the oil contains also a small amount of other anti-oxidant Irgalubeamino phosphate derivative, test 5.
Higher percentages of the anti-oxidants give results which are superior to the results of commercial hydrocarbon based hydraulic oils. The ability of the hydraulic fluids according to the invention was also tested in a full scale test, which is described in the following example 3.
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A vegetable oil based hydraulic fluid was tested using as a reference a commercial mineral oil based hydraulic fluid. In the test two new identical hydraulic driven mining loaders were used. Hydraulic pressure was generated by gear pumps and the power was taken out by means of cylinder-piston devices. The following Table 7 gives the viscosity of the oils after a prolonged time in operation. In the same test also the volumetric efficiency of the hydraulic systems 2 and 3 was recorded during the test period and the results are given in the following table 8.
The test results of Table 7 indicate that the durability against shear stress of the vegetable oil based fluid was better than that of the mineral oil based fluid. The test results of Table 8 indicate that the efficiency of the system containing the vegetable oil based fluid decreased slower than that of the mineral oil based fluid. The lubricative properties of a hydraulic fluid based on the triglyceride composition of the invention were tested by using the testing method described in the following example 4.
The oils tested are given in the Table 9. The lubricating properties were compared also by using a gear system, which test is described in the following Example 5. Refined rape seed oil In addition to the basic composition the hydraulic fluid according to the invention may also comprise other constituents such as:. From the base composition according to the invention can be made hydraulic fluids for different purposes by adjusting its viscosity. The following table 12 gives one example of adjusting possibilities.
From a base composition according to the invention was made hydraulic fluids for different viscosity classes ASTM D Kind code of ref document: Country of ref document: Hydraulic fluids based on natural triglycerides.
394 base composition for these hydraulic fluids consists of at least one natural triglyceride and one anti-oxidant additive. The triglyceride suitable for the composition can be defined as an ester of a straight-chain C10 to C22 fatty acid and glycerol which has an iodine number of between 50 and The fraction of the anti-oxidant additives is selected preferably among hindered phenolics and aromatic amines, but can be completed orgalube compounds selected from metal salts of dithioacids, phosphites, sulfides, amides, non-aromatic amines, hydrazides and triazols.
Preferred amount of the anti-oxidant s in the fluid is 1. Hydraulic fluids The present invention is concerned 39 hydraulic fluids based on oily triglycerides of fatty acids.
The triglycerides described in the said specification GB 2 are glycerol esters of fatty acids, and the chemical structure of the said esters can be defined by means of the following formula: What is claimed is: A base composition for hydraulic fluids consisting of:.